hacker

A Pocket Style Manual

14

Table of Contents

Clarity

1 Tighten wordy sentences.1a Redundancies1b Empty or inflated phrases1c Needlessly complex structures

2 Prefer active verbs.2a When to replace be verbs2b When to replace passive verbs

3 Balance parallel ideas.3a Items in a series3b Paired ideas

4 Add needed words.4a Words in compound structures4b The word that4c Words in comparisons

5 Eliminate confusing shifts.5a Shifts in point of view5b Shifts in tense

6 Untangle mixed constructions.6a Mixed grammar6b Illogical connections6c is when, is where, and reason . . . is because constructions

7 Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers.7a Misplaced words7b Misplaced phrases and clauses7c Dangling modifiers7d Split infinitives

8 Provide sentence variety.8a Combining choppy sentences8b Varying sentence openings

9 Find an appropriate voice.9a Jargon9b Clichés9c Slang9d Sexist language9e Offensive language

Grammar

10 Make subjects and verbs agree.10a Words between subject and verb10b Subjects joined with and10c Subjects joined with or or nor10d Indefinite pronouns such as someone10e Collective nouns such as jury10f Subject after verb10g who, which, and that10h Plural form, singular meaning10i Titles, company names, and words mentioned as words

11 Be alert to other problems with verbs.11a Irregular verbs11b Tense11c Mood

12 Use pronouns with care.12a Pronoun-antecedent agreement12b Pronoun reference12c Case of personal pronouns (I vs. me etc.)12d who or whom

13 Use adjectives and adverbs appropriately.13a Adjectives 13b Adverbs13c Comparatives and superlatives 14 Repair sentence fragments.14a Fragmented clauses14b Fragmented phrases14c Acceptable fragments

15 Revise run-on sentences.15a Revision with a comma and a coordinating conjunction15b Revision with a semicolon (or a colon or a dash)15c Revision by separating sentences15d Revision by restructuring the sentence

16 Consider grammar topics for multilingual writers.16a Verbs16b Articles (a, an, the)16c Sentence structure16d Prepositions showing time and place

Punctuation

17 The comma17a Before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clauses17b After an introductory word group17c Between items in a series17d Between coordinate adjectives17e To set off a nonrestrictive element, but not a restrictive element17f To set off transitional and parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, and word groups expressing contrast17g To set off nouns of direct address, the words yes and no, interrogative tags, and mild interjections17h To set off direct quotations introduced with expressions such as he said17i With dates, addresses, and titles17j Misuses of the comma

18 The semicolon and the colon18a The semicolon18b The colon

19 The apostrophe19a To indicate possession19b To mark contractions19c Conventional uses19d Misuses of the apostrophe

20 Quotation marks20a To enclose direct quotations20b Around titles of short works20c To set off words used as words20d Other punctuation with quotation marks20e Misuses of quotation marks

21 Other marks21a The period21b The question mark21c The exclamation point21d The dash21e Parentheses21f Brackets21g The ellipsis mark21h The slash

Mechanics

22 Capitalization22a Proper vs. common nouns22b Titles with proper names22c Titles of works22d First word of a sentence or quoted sentence22e First word following a colon22f Abbreviations

23 Abbreviations, numbers, and italics23a Abbreviations23b Numbers23c Italics

24 Spelling and the hyphen24a Spelling24b The hyphen

Research

25 Posing a research question25a Choosing a focused question25b Choosing a challenging question25c Choosing a grounded question25d Testing a research question

26 Finding appropriate sources26a Using the library26b Using the Web26c Using bibliographies and citations

27 Evaluating sources27a Selecting sources27b Reading with an open mind and a critical eye27c Assessing Web sources with special care27d Constructing an annotated bibliography

28 Managing information; avoiding plagiarism28a Keeping track of source materials28b Taking notes responsibly: avoiding unintentional plagiarism28c Maintaining a working bibliography

MLA Papers

29 Supporting a thesis29a Forming a working thesis29b Organizing your ideas29c Using sources to inform and support your argument29d Getting feedback

30 Avoiding plagiarism30a Citing quotations and borrowed ideas30b Using the MLA citation system to lead readers to your sources30c Enclosing borrowed language in quotation marks30d Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words

31 Integrating sources31a Summarizing and paraphrasing effectively31b Using quotations effectively31c Using signal phrases to integrate sources31d Synthesizing sources

32 Integrating literary quotations32a Introducing quotations from literary works32b Avoiding shifts in tense32c Formatting and citing literary passages

33 MLA documentation style33a MLA in-text citations33b MLA list of works cited33c MLA information notes (optional)

34 MLA manuscript format; sample pages34a MLA manuscript format34b Sample pages from MLA papers

APA Papers

35 Supporting a thesis35a Forming a working thesis35b Organizing your ideas35c Using sources to inform and support your argument35d Getting feedback

36 Avoiding plagiarism 36a Citing quotations and borrowed ideas36b Understanding how the APA system works36c Enclosing borrowed language in quotation marks36d Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words

37 Integrating sources37a Summarizing and paraphrasing effectively37b Using quotations effectively37c Using signal phrases to integrate sources

38 APA documentation style38a APA in-text citations38b APA list of references

39 APA manuscript format; sample pages39a APA manuscript format39b Sample APA pages

Chicago Papers

40 Supporting a thesis40a Forming a working thesis40b Organizing your ideas40c Using sources to inform and support your argument40d Getting feedback

41 Avoiding plagiarism 41a Citing quotations and borrowed ideas41b Understanding how the Chicago system works41c Enclosing borrowed language in quotation marks41d Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words

42 Integrating sources42a Summarizing and paraphrasing effectively42b Using quotations effectively42c Using signal phrases to integrate sources

43 Chicago documentation style43a First and later notes for a source43b Chicago-style bibliography43c Model notes and bibliography entries

44 Chicago manuscript format; sample pages44a Chicago manuscript format44b Sample pages from a Chicago research paper

CSE Papers

45 CSE documentation style45a CSE documentation systems45b CSE in-text citations45c CSE reference list

46 CSE manuscript format46a Formatting the paper46b Formatting the reference list

Glossaries

Glossary of usage

Glossary of grammatical terms

Index Revision symbols

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